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EUROPE

Total personnel (FTE) involved in research and development activities (R&D): total and by sector of performance

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2019
Pro2,912,876
Full-time Equival...
Portugal
2019
Pro62,517
Full-time Equival...
EU27 (2020)
1982
 
(no values)
Portugal
1982
8,553
Full-time Equival...
Operations
Options
 
Full-time Equivalent (FTE)
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Government sector
Higher education sector
Private non-profit sector
Years More years here
1982
2019
1982
2019
1982
2019
1982
2019
1982
2019
European Union 27 (since 2020)xPro2,912,876xPro1,732,421xPro356,477xPro803,596xPro20,383
   Germanyxs733,007xs470,407x111,400xs151,200xx
   AustriaxPro84,060xPro58,036xPro5,824xPro19,553xPro647
   Belgium33,042Pro96,15818,799Pro60,6011,357Pro7,84411,023Pro26,5921,864Pro1,120
   BulgariaxPro26,399xPro13,826xPro8,307xPro4,123xPro143
   CyprusxPro1,870xPro665xPro235xPro760xPro210
   CroatiaxPro14,492xPro5,235xPro3,204xPro6,052xx
   Denmark17,235Pro60,6389,404Pro36,2023,545Pro2,2214,116Pro21,983170Pro233
   Slovakiax21,196x7,113x4,079x9,996x8
   SloveniaxPro16,984xPro11,327xPro2,664xPro2,888xPro106
   Spains35,530Pro216,89012,914Pro95,66710,594Pro40,33212,022Pro80,318xPro572
   EstoniaxPro6,448xPro2,639xPro762xPro2,953xPro93
   Finlandx51,494x29,713x4,177x17,002x602
   France258,937s463,738132,228s286,96866,446s49,19055,865s119,9204,398s7,660
   GreecexPro54,833xPro14,232xPro13,865xPro26,278xPro457
   Hungary49,23656,94330,92133,12410,3699,7087,94614,111xx
   Ireland4,96037,3101,549Pro20,1372,2141,1941,12015,97977x
   Italy105,927Pro355,36249,900Pro225,16821,036Pro39,78134,991Pro84,098xPro6,315
   LatviaxPro5,923xPro1,174xPro1,028xPro3,721xx
   LithuaniaxPro12,941xPro4,756xPro2,309xPro5,876xx
   LuxembourgxPro5,892xPro3,183xPro1,333xPro1,376xx
   MaltaxPro1,612xPro1,027xPro17xPro568xx
   Netherlands57,450Pro160,23427,140Pro115,79512,740Pro9,33916,030Pro35,1001,540Pro0
   PolandxPro163,98551,000Pro86,72110,300Pro3,23517,500Pro73,196xPro833
   Portugal8,553Pro62,5171,891Pro27,6434,054Pro2,3342,330Pro31,757278Pro783
   Czech RepublicxPro79,245xPro44,792xPro14,530xPro19,647xPro276
   Romaniax31,665x11,628x12,220x7,600x217
   SwedenxPro91,041x64,641x5,344xPro20,948xPro108
Icelandxxxxxxxxxx
Norways15,218Pro49,2496,935Pro25,1513,203Pro6,625s4,960Pro17,473s120x
United Kingdom308,000Pro486,088191,000Pro270,41755,000Pro14,66552,000Pro191,79511,000Pro9,212
Switzerlandxxxxxxxxxx
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-12-03
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