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EUROPE

Total personnel (FTE) involved in research and development activities (R&D): total and by sector of performance

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2018
Pro2,795,454
Full-time Equival...
Portugal
2018
Pro57,150
Full-time Equival...
EU27 (2020)
1982
 
(no values)
Portugal
1982
8,553
Full-time Equival...
Operations
Options
 
Full-time Equivalent (FTE)
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Government sector
Higher education sector
Private non-profit sector
Years More years here
1982
2018
1982
2018
1982
2018
1982
2018
1982
2018
European Union 27 (since 2020)xPro2,795,454xPro1,649,354xPro346,976xPro778,215xPro20,909
   AustriaxPro81,534xPro56,292xPro5,649xPro18,965xPro628
   Belgium33,042Pro88,74918,799Pro55,3601,357Pro7,19711,023Pro25,5461,864Pro647
   BulgariaxPro25,717xPro13,018xPro8,177xPro4,404xPro118
   CroatiaxPro13,029xPro4,520xPro3,167xPro5,342xx
   CyprusxPro1,610xPro450xPro250xPro700xPro210
   Czech RepublicxPro74,969xPro42,349xPro14,163xPro18,226xPro232
   Denmark17,235Pro64,5919,404Pro39,8053,545Pro2,3044,116Pro22,205170Pro276
   EstoniaxPro6,183xPro2,150xPro680xPro3,233xPro121
   Finlandx50,011x28,720x4,217x16,418x657
   France258,937s451,423132,228s275,55366,446s48,98055,865s119,3404,398s7,550
   Germanyxs706,557xs451,057x108,100xs147,400xx
   GreecexPro51,092xPro13,922xPro13,227xPro23,431xPro512
   Hungary49,23645,56630,92129,08510,3697,1727,9469,309xx
   Ireland4,96035,8171,549s18,9562,2141,1961,12015,66577x
   Italy105,927Pro311,73449,900Pro185,22821,036Pro38,11534,991Pro81,569xPro6,822
   LatviaxPro6,039xPro1,221xPro1,032xPro3,786xx
   LithuaniaxPro11,661xPro4,009xPro2,333xPro5,319xx
   LuxembourgxPro5,624xPro3,311xPro1,138xPro1,174xx
   Maltax1,408x854x38x517xx
   Netherlands57,450Pro157,38927,140Pro113,68612,740Pro9,40216,030Pro34,3001,540x
   PolandxPro161,99351,000Pro85,98110,300Pro4,37717,500Pro70,172xPro1,464
   Portugal8,553Pro57,1501,891Pro22,7374,054Pro2,2702,330Pro31,422278Pro722
   Romaniax31,933x12,081x11,986x7,695x171
   Slovakiax20,268x6,524x4,060x9,620x64
   SloveniaxPro15,698xPro10,456xPro2,497xPro2,687xPro58
   Spains35,530225,69612,914104,47410,59440,33212,02280,318x572
   Swedenx92,011x67,554x4,918x19,453x86
United Kingdom308,000Pro469,647191,000Pro255,12055,000Pro14,72652,000Pro191,56711,000Pro8,234
Icelandx3,172x1,799x277x1,096x0
Norways15,218Pro46,8466,935Pro24,0093,203Pro6,600s4,960Pro16,237s120x
Switzerlandxxxxxxxxxx
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-03-20
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