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EUROPE

Expenditure in research and development activities (R&D) as a % of GDP: by sector of performance

Year
Indicator
EU28
2016
Pro2.03
%
Portugal
2016
Pro1.27
%
EU28
1995
 
(no values)
Portugal
1995
0.52
%
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Ratio - %
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Government sector
Higher education sector
Private non-profit sector
Years More years here
1995
2016
1995
2016
1995
2016
1995
2016
1995
2016
European Union (28 countries)-Pro2.03---Pro0.23----
   Austrias1.53Pro3.09-Pro2.20-Pro0.14-Pro0.73-Pro0.02
   Belgium1.64Pro2.491.17Pro1.730.08Pro0.240.37Pro0.500.02Pro0.02
   Bulgaria0.56Pro0.780.28Pro0.570.24Pro0.170.05Pro0.04-Pro0.00
   Croatia-Pro0.84-Pro0.37-Pro0.18-Pro0.28--
   Cyprus-Pro0.50-Pro0.17-Pro0.06-Pro0.21-Pro0.07
   Czech Republic0.88Pro1.680.57Pro1.030.23Pro0.300.07Pro0.34-Pro0.00
   Denmark1.79s2.871.03s1.890.30s0.060.44s0.910.02s0.01
   Estonia-1.28-0.660.410.150.160.46-0.02
   Finland2.202.751.391.810.370.220.430.690.010.02
   France2.23-1.36-0.47-0.37-0.03-
   Germanys2.13s2.941.41s2.000.330.400.390.54--
   Greece0.42Pro0.990.12Pro0.410.11Pro0.250.18Pro0.330.00Pro0.01
   Hungary0.711.210.310.890.180.160.170.13--
   Irelands1.22s1.180.86s0.830.110.05s0.250.30s0.01-
   Italy0.94Pro1.290.50Pro0.750.20Pro0.170.24Pro0.33-Pro0.04
   Latvia0.430.440.120.110.200.140.110.19--
   Lithuania0.43Pro0.74-Pro0.27-Pro0.14-Pro0.33--
   Luxembourg-Pro1.24-Pro0.64-0.37-0.23--
   Malta-Pro0.60-Pro0.38-Pro0.01-Pro0.21--
   Netherlands1.85Pro2.030.96Pro1.160.33Pro0.230.53Pro0.640.02-
   Poland0.62-0.24-0.22-0.16-0.00-
   Portugal0.52Pro1.270.11Pro0.610.14Pro0.070.19Pro0.570.08Pro0.02
   Romania0.75Pro0.480.58Pro0.270.15Pro0.160.02Pro0.05-Pro0.00
   Slovakia0.910.790.490.400.360.170.050.220.000.00
   Slovenias1.49Pro2.000.70Pro1.510.38Pro0.27s0.41Pro0.220.01Pro0.00
   Spain0.77Pro1.190.37Pro0.640.14Pro0.220.25Pro0.330.01Pro0.00
   Swedens3.13Pro3.25s2.34Pro2.260.12Pro0.110.68Pro0.870.00Pro0.01
   United Kingdom1.66Pro1.691.08-0.24-0.32-0.02-
Iceland1.532.080.491.310.570.100.420.670.050.00
United States of America----------
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | NSI, Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, PORDATA
Last updated: 2018-03-21
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