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EUROPE

Expenditure in research and development activities (R&D) as a % of GDP: by sector of performance

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2018
2.19
%
Portugal
2018
Pro1.36
%
EU27 (2020)
1995
 
(no values)
Portugal
1995
0.52
%
Operations
Options
 
Ratio - %
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Government sector
Higher education sector
Private non-profit sector
Years More years here
1995
2018
1995
2018
1995
2018
1995
2018
1995
2018
European Union 27 (since 2020)-2.19-1.45-0.25-0.47-s0.01
   Austrias1.53Pro3.17-Pro2.22-Pro0.23-Pro0.71-Pro0.02
   Belgium1.65Pro2.761.17Pro1.950.08Pro0.260.37Pro0.540.02Pro0.02
   Bulgaria0.430.760.210.540.180.170.040.04-0.00
   Croatia-Pro0.97-Pro0.47-Pro0.19-Pro0.31--
   Cyprus-Pro0.55-Pro0.20-Pro0.05-Pro0.23-Pro0.06
   Czech Republic0.88Pro1.930.57Pro1.200.23Pro0.320.07Pro0.41-Pro0.00
   Denmark1.79Pro3.031.03Pro1.950.30Pro0.090.44Pro0.980.02Pro0.01
   Estonia-Pro1.40-Pro0.590.40Pro0.160.16Pro0.63-Pro0.02
   Finland2.202.761.391.810.370.230.430.700.010.02
   France2.24Pro2.201.37Pro1.440.47Pro0.280.37Pro0.450.03Pro0.03
   Germany2.14s3.131.422.160.330.420.39s0.56--
   Greece0.42Pro1.180.12Pro0.570.11Pro0.260.18Pro0.330.00Pro0.01
   Hungary0.711.530.311.160.180.170.170.19--
   Irelands1.221.150.860.860.110.05s0.250.24s0.01-
   Italy0.93Pro1.390.50Pro0.860.20Pro0.180.24Pro0.33-Pro0.02
   Latvia0.430.640.120.160.200.150.110.34--
   Lithuania0.43Pro0.94-Pro0.39-Pro0.21-Pro0.34--
   Luxembourg-Pro1.21-Pro0.68-s0.29-s0.25--
   Malta-Pro0.57-Pro0.35-Pro0.01-Pro0.22--
   Netherlands1.82Pro2.160.95Pro1.450.33Pro0.130.53Pro0.590.02-
   Poland0.621.210.240.800.220.020.160.380.000.00
   Portugal0.52Pro1.360.11Pro0.700.14Pro0.070.19Pro0.560.08Pro0.02
   Romania0.76Pro0.500.59Pro0.300.15Pro0.150.02Pro0.05-Pro0.00
   Slovakia0.900.840.490.450.360.180.050.200.000.00
   Slovenias1.49Pro1.950.69Pro1.450.38Pro0.26s0.41Pro0.230.01Pro0.01
   Spain0.77Pro1.240.37Pro0.700.14Pro0.210.25Pro0.330.01Pro0.00
   Swedens3.123.32s2.332.350.110.120.670.840.000.00
United Kingdom1.65Pro1.701.07Pro1.180.24Pro0.100.32Pro0.380.02Pro0.04
Iceland1.512.040.481.310.560.080.410.640.050.00
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, Eurostat | NSI, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-06-22
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