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EUROPE

Expenditure in research and development activities (R&D) as a % of GDP: by sector of performance

Year
Indicator
EU28
2017
Pro2.06
%
Portugal
2017
Pro1.33
%
EU28
1995
 
(no values)
Portugal
1995
0.52
%
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Ratio - %
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Government sector
Higher education sector
Private non-profit sector
Years More years here
1995
2017
1995
2017
1995
2017
1995
2017
1995
2017
European Union (28 countries)-Pro2.06-Pro1.36-Pro0.23-Pro0.46-Pro0.02
   Austrias1.53Pro3.16-Pro2.22-Pro0.22-Pro0.70-Pro0.02
   Belgium1.64Pro2.581.17Pro1.760.08Pro0.290.37Pro0.540.02-
   Bulgaria0.430.750.210.530.180.170.040.04-0.01
   Croatia-0.86-0.42-0.19-0.25--
   Cyprus-Pro0.55-Pro0.20-Pro0.05-Pro0.23-Pro0.07
   Czech Republic0.881.790.571.130.230.310.070.35-0.00
   Denmark1.79Pro3.051.03Pro1.970.30Pro0.090.44Pro0.980.02Pro0.01
   Estonia-1.29-0.610.410.150.160.51-0.02
   Finland2.202.761.391.800.370.240.430.700.010.02
   France2.24Pro2.191.37Pro1.420.47Pro0.280.37Pro0.450.03Pro0.04
   Germany2.14s3.051.42s2.120.330.410.39s0.53--
   Greece0.42Pro1.130.12Pro0.550.11Pro0.250.18Pro0.320.00Pro0.01
   Hungary0.711.350.310.990.180.170.170.18--
   Irelands1.221.040.860.740.110.05s0.250.26s0.01-
   Italy0.94Pro1.350.50Pro0.830.20Pro0.170.24Pro0.33-Pro0.02
   Latvia0.430.510.120.140.200.130.110.24--
   Lithuania0.430.89-0.32-0.25-0.32--
   Luxembourg-Pro1.26-Pro0.68-s0.33-s0.25--
   Malta-0.54-0.34-0.01-0.20--
   Netherlands1.82Pro1.990.95Pro1.170.33Pro0.230.53Pro0.590.02-
   Poland0.621.030.240.670.220.020.160.340.000.00
   Portugal0.52Pro1.330.11Pro0.670.14Pro0.070.19Pro0.570.08Pro0.02
   Romania0.76Pro0.500.59Pro0.290.15Pro0.160.02Pro0.05-Pro0.00
   Slovakia0.910.880.490.480.360.180.050.220.000.00
   Slovenias1.49Pro1.860.69Pro1.390.38Pro0.26s0.41Pro0.210.01Pro0.00
   SpainPro0.77Pro1.21Pro0.37Pro0.66Pro0.14Pro0.21Pro0.25Pro0.33Pro0.01Pro0.00
   Swedens3.123.37s2.332.400.110.120.670.840.000.00
   United Kingdom1.66Pro1.661.08Pro1.120.24Pro0.110.32Pro0.390.02Pro0.04
Iceland1.512.110.481.360.560.090.410.660.050.00
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, Eurostat | NSI, PORDATA
Last updated: 2019-09-30
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