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EUROPE

Researchers (FTE) involved in research and development activities (R&D): total and by sector of performance

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2018
1,774,369
Full-time Equival...
Portugal
2018
47,652
Full-time Equival...
EU27 (2020)
1982
 
(no values)
Portugal
1982
3,963
Full-time Equival...
Operations
Options
 
Full-time Equivalent (FTE)
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Government sector
Higher education sector
Private non-profit sector
Years More years here
1982
2018
1982
2018
1982
2018
1982
2018
1982
2018
European Union 27 (since 2020)x1,774,369x972,210x199,538x589,116xs13,505
   AustriaxPro50,975xPro32,125xPro3,932xPro14,495xPro423
   Belgium13,410Pro57,6785,662Pro32,449645Pro4,6906,608Pro19,985494Pro555
   Bulgariax16,521x8,020x4,530x3,886x85
   CroatiaxPro7,985xPro1,810xPro1,874xPro4,301xx
   CyprusxPro1,100xPro300xPro90xPro625xPro85
   Czech RepublicxPro41,198xPro21,150xPro7,879xPro12,001xPro168
   Denmark7,255Pro46,3962,587Pro28,0821,868Pro1,7362,719Pro16,38481Pro195
   EstoniaxPro4,968xPro1,652xPro489xPro2,718xPro109
   Finlandx37,891x21,328x3,236x12,824x503
   France90,076s306,45137,366s190,89118,358s29,19533,023s81,9111,329s4,454
   Germanyxs433,817x261,634x57,183xs115,000xx
   GreecexPro36,646xPro10,041xPro7,740xPro18,588xPro278
   Hungary21,97031,43012,50020,0245,0094,7444,4616,662xx
   Ireland2,29125,265655s12,19268165290012,42155x
   Italy56,707Pro139,85319,535Pro60,9129,314Pro21,77827,858Pro52,546xPro4,617
   Latviax3,456x684x572x2,200xx
   LithuaniaxPro8,938xPro2,832xPro1,584xPro4,521xx
   LuxembourgxPro2,986xPro1,311xPro618xPro1,057xx
   MaltaxPro855xPro452xPro16xPro388xx
   NetherlandsxPro95,611xPro66,946xPro5,8646,752Pro22,800xx
   Polandx117,78951,00056,72710,3003,11017,50057,049x903
   Portugal3,96347,65265516,7461,7601,5581,39428,831154517
   Romaniax17,213x4,643x6,597x5,832x141
   Slovakiax16,337x3,918x3,088x9,279x52
   SloveniaxPro10,087xPro6,264xPro1,661xPro2,129xPro33
   Spain18,782140,1203,40954,3603,35121,42212,02264,007x331
   Swedenx75,151x54,720x3,700x16,676x55
United Kingdom128,000Pro309,07477,000Pro125,56320,000Pro7,02825,000Pro171,9885,000Pro4,495
Icelandx2,050x876x247x927x0
Norways7,75434,3333,38216,676x4,607x13,051xx
Switzerlandxxxxxxxxxx
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-09-14
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