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EUROPE

Total personnel (FTE) involved in research and development activities (R&D): total and of enterprises sector

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2018
2,798,034.0
Full-time Equival...
Portugal
2018
58,154.0
Full-time Equival...
EU27 (2020)
1982
 
(no values)
Portugal
1982
8,553.0
Full-time Equival...
Operations
Options
 
Full-time Equivalent (FTE)
Groups/Countries
Performance sectors
Total
Business enterprise sector
Years More years here
1982
2018
1982
2018
European Union 27 (since 2020)x2,798,034.0x1,650,701.0
   AustriaxPro81,534.0xPro56,292.0
   Belgium33,042.0Pro88,749.018,799.0Pro55,360.0
   Bulgariax25,809.0x13,110.0
   CroatiaxPro13,029.0xPro4,520.0
   CyprusxPro1,610.0xPro450.0
   Czech RepublicxPro74,969.0xPro42,349.0
   Denmark17,235.0Pro64,591.09,404.0Pro39,805.0
   EstoniaxPro6,183.0xPro2,150.0
   Finlandx50,011.0x28,720.0
   France258,937.0s451,423.0132,228.0s275,553.0
   Germanyxs707,944.0x451,057.0
   GreecexPro51,092.0xPro13,922.0
   Hungary49,236.045,566.030,921.029,085.0
   Ireland4,960.035,817.01,549.0s18,956.0
   Italy105,927.0Pro311,734.049,900.0Pro185,228.0
   Latviax5,806.0x1,221.0
   LithuaniaxPro11,956.0xPro4,304.0
   LuxembourgxPro5,624.0xPro3,311.0
   MaltaxPro1,443.0xPro889.0
   Netherlands57,450.0Pro157,389.027,140.0Pro113,686.0
   Polandx161,993.051,000.085,981.0
   Portugal8,553.058,154.01,891.023,662.0
   Romaniax31,933.0x12,081.0
   Slovakiax20,268.0x6,524.0
   SloveniaxPro15,698.0xPro10,456.0
   Spains35,530.0225,696.012,914.0104,474.0
   Swedenx92,011.0x67,554.0
United Kingdom308,000.0Pro469,647.0191,000.0Pro255,120.0
Icelandx3,172.0x1,799.0
Norways15,218.046,602.06,935.023,766.0
Switzerlandxxxx
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-06-24
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