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Total personnel and researchers involved in research and development activities (R&D): full-time equivalent per thousand active persons

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2019
Pro13.9
Portugal
2019
Pro12.5
EU27 (2020)
1986
 
(no values)
Portugal
1986
2.4
Operations
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Proportion - ‰
Groups/Countries
Total personnel in R&D per thousand active persons
Researchers in R&D per thousand of the active population
Years More years here
1986
2019
1986
2019
European Union 27 (since 2020)-Pro13.9-Pro8.8
   Germany-s17.3-s10.6
   Austria-Pro18.7-Pro11.7
   Belgium9.2Pro19.14.0Pro12.4
   Bulgaria-Pro8.1-Pro5.2
   Cyprus-Pro4.3-Pro2.9
   Croatia-Pro8.2-Pro5.0
   Denmark7.6Pro20.73.3Pro14.5
   Slovakia-7.8-6.3
   Slovenia-Pro16.7-Pro10.3
   Spains3.3Pro9.5s1.8Pro5.9
   Estonia-Pro9.7-Pro7.5
   Finland-19.3-15.0
   France11.5s15.94.4s10.7
   Greece-Pro11.8-Pro8.6
   Hungary-12.4-8.6
   Ireland4.315.82.311.0
   Italy5.4Pro14.13.0Pro6.4
   Latvia-Pro6.4-Pro3.9
   Lithuania-Pro9.1-Pro6.8
   Luxembourg-Pro19.4-Pro10.4
   Malta-Pro6.3-Pro3.7
   Netherlands-Pro17.8-Pro11.0
   Poland-Pro9.8-Pro7.3
   Portugal2.4Pro12.51.3Pro10.1
   Czech Republic-Pro15.1-Pro8.1
   Romania-3.6-2.0
   Sweden-Pro17.1-Pro14.6
Iceland----
Norway-Pro18.1-Pro13.5
United Kingdom10.7Pro14.94.9Pro9.7
Switzerland----
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, Eurostat | NSI, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-12-03
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