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EUROPE

Total personnel and researchers involved in research and development activities (R&D): full-time equivalent per thousand active persons

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2018
13.4
Portugal
2018
11.7
EU27 (2020)
1986
 
(no values)
Portugal
1986
2.4
Operations
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Proportion - ‰
Groups/Countries
Total personnel in R&D per thousand active persons
Researchers in R&D per thousand of the active population
Years More years here
1986
2018
1986
2018
European Union 27 (since 2020)-13.4-8.5
   Austria-Pro18.3-Pro11.4
   Belgium9.2Pro17.84.0Pro11.5
   Bulgaria-8.0-5.1
   Croatia-Pro7.3-Pro4.5
   Cyprus-Pro3.8-Pro2.6
   Czech Republic-Pro14.2-Pro7.8
   Denmark7.6Pro22.33.3Pro16.0
   Estonia-Pro9.3-Pro7.5
   Finland-18.8-14.2
   France11.5s15.44.4s10.4
   Germany-s16.8-s10.3
   Greece-Pro11.0-Pro7.9
   Hungary-9.9-6.9
   Ireland4.315.52.310.9
   Italy5.4Pro12.33.0Pro5.5
   Latvia-6.1-3.7
   Lithuania-Pro8.5-Pro6.3
   Luxembourg-Pro19.1-Pro10.1
   Malta-Pro5.9-Pro3.5
   Netherlands-Pro17.7-Pro10.8
   Poland-9.6-7.0
   Portugal2.411.71.39.6
   Romania-3.6-2.0
   Slovakia-7.5-6.0
   Slovenia-Pro15.5-Pro9.9
   Spains3.310.0s1.86.2
   Sweden-17.5-14.3
United Kingdom10.7Pro14.54.9Pro9.5
Iceland-16.4-10.6
Norway-17.3-12.7
Switzerland----
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, Eurostat | NSI, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-09-14
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