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EUROPE

Total personnel and researchers involved in research and development activities (R&D): full-time equivalent per thousand active persons

Year
Indicator
EU28
2018
Pro13.2
Portugal
2018
Pro10.9
EU28
1986
 
(no values)
Portugal
1986
2.3
Operations
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Proportion - ‰
Groups/Countries
Total personnel in R&D per thousand active persons
Researchers in R&D per thousand of the active population
Years More years here
1986
2018
1986
2018
European Union (28 countries)xPro13.2xPro8.4
   AustriaxPro18.0xPro11.2
   Belgium9.1Pro17.64.0Pro11.4
   BulgariaxPro7.7xPro5.0
   CroatiaxPro7.2xPro4.4
   CyprusxPro3.7xPro2.5
   Czech RepublicxPro13.8xPro7.6
   Denmark7.4Pro21.43.3Pro15.4
   EstoniaxPro8.8xPro7.1
   Finlandx18.2x13.8
   France11.4s15.14.4s10.3
   Germany-s16.3-s10.0
   Greece-Pro10.8-Pro7.7
   Hungary-9.8-6.8
   Ireland4.215.02.310.5
   Italy5.3Pro12.02.9Pro5.4
   LatviaxPro6.1xPro3.8
   LithuaniaxPro8.0xPro6.0
   Luxembourg-Pro19.0-Pro10.1
   Maltax5.8x3.5
   Netherlands-Pro17.2xPro10.5
   PolandxPro9.4xPro6.9
   Portugal2.3Pro10.91.2Pro8.9
   Romaniax3.5x1.9
   Slovakiax7.4x5.9
   SloveniaxPro15.2xPro9.8
   Spains3.39.9s1.86.1
   Swedenx16.9x13.8
   United Kingdom10.6Pro13.94.9Pro9.2
Icelandx15.6x10.1
NorwayxPro16.8xPro12.4
Switzerland--x-
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, Eurostat | NSI, PORDATA
Last updated: 2019-12-17
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