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EUROPE

Total personnel and researchers involved in research and development activities (R&D): full-time equivalent per thousand active persons

Year
Indicator
EU27 (2020)
2018
Pro13.1
Portugal
2018
Pro10.9
EU27 (2020)
1986
 
(no values)
Portugal
1986
2.3
Operations
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Proportion - ‰
Groups/Countries
Total personnel in R&D per thousand active persons
Researchers in R&D per thousand of the active population
Years More years here
1986
2018
1986
2018
European Union 27 (since 2020)xPro13.1xPro8.3
   AustriaxPro18.0xPro11.2
   Belgium9.1Pro17.64.0Pro11.4
   BulgariaxPro7.7xPro5.0
   CroatiaxPro7.2xPro4.4
   CyprusxPro3.7xPro2.5
   Czech RepublicxPro13.8xPro7.6
   Denmark7.4Pro21.63.3Pro15.5
   EstoniaxPro8.8xPro7.1
   Finlandx18.2x13.8
   France11.4s15.24.4s10.3
   Germany-s16.3-s10.0
   Greece-Pro10.8-Pro7.7
   Hungary-9.8-6.8
   Ireland4.215.02.310.5
   Italy5.3Pro12.02.9Pro5.4
   LatviaxPro6.1xPro3.8
   LithuaniaxPro8.0xPro6.0
   Luxembourg-Pro19.0-Pro10.1
   Maltax5.7x3.4
   Netherlands-Pro17.2xPro10.5
   PolandxPro9.4xPro6.9
   Portugal2.3Pro10.91.2Pro8.9
   Romaniax3.5x1.9
   Slovakiax7.4x5.9
   SloveniaxPro15.2xPro9.8
   Spains3.39.9s1.86.1
   Swedenx16.9x13.8
United Kingdom10.6Pro13.94.9Pro9.2
Icelandx15.6x10.1
NorwayxPro16.8xPro12.4
Switzerland--x-
Sources/Entities: Eurostat | OECD | National Entities, Eurostat | NSI, PORDATA
Last updated: 2020-04-24
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